12/25/2007

Autogenic Training

自律訓練法(Autogenic Training)

体をリラックスさせるドイツの方法です。

『健康心理学辞典(実務教育出版)』より

シュルツ(Schultz,J.H,1928) によって開発された心理生理的訓練法。

 具体的には、段階的に訓練を進めていくことによって、弛緩鎮静、自律神経系の安定などの方向に心身全般が変換した状態(自律状態)が得られるように工夫されたセルフコントロール技法である。

 自律訓練は本来、不安、緊張などが基底にある心身症や神経症の治療法として開発されたものであるが、現在では一般的な自己弛緩法、ストレス緩和法、心身の健康維持・増進法などとして普及してきているほか、スポーツにおけるあがり対策、教育領域における集中力や持続力の向上などから能力開発法まで広く用いられている。

 自律訓練法には、自己暗示的な言語公式を用いて進めていく7段階の練習から構成された標準練習と、その標準練習によって得られた被暗示性の亢進やイメージが出やすいことなどの心身の変換を基盤にして進められる上級練習がある。

 標準練習は、公式化された語句を反復暗唱しながら次第に心身の弛緩した状態が得られるように工夫された7段階の練習から構成されている。この練習を通して、心理的には受動的態度が、生理的には筋弛緩、自律神経系の安定状態が得られる。

(1)背景公式(安静練習):「気持ちが落ち着いている」
(2)第1公式(四肢重感練習):「両腕両足が重たい」
(3)第2公式(四肢温感練習):「両腕両足が温かい」
(4)第3公式(心臓調整練習):「心臓が(自然に)静かに規則正しく打っている」
(5)第4公式(呼吸調整練習):「(自然に)楽に息をしている」
(6)第5公式(腹部温感練習):「お腹が温かい」
(7)第6公式(額部涼感練習):「額が気持ちよく涼しい」

 一般的な心身の健康維持・増進法としては、安静練習と四肢の重・温感練習を用いる。

 自律訓練法には、標準練習によって得られたイメージが出やすい状態を基盤にして進めていく黙想練習、無意識的な精神活動の存在の確認とその活性化を目的として行われる時間感覚練習、右脳半球機能の賦活を目的として開発された空間感覚練習、被暗示性の亢進状態を積極的に利用して、心身に治療的変化をもたらそうとする自律性修正法、心身を調整する一種の心理生理的なカタルシス現象である自律性解放を積極的に利用する自律性中和法などの特殊練習がある。

http://www.komazawa-u.ac.jp/~sasakiyj/at.htm

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自分に言い聞かせる時、2と3なら、初心者なら、たとえば

右足がとても重い(温かい)です。左足がとても重いです。
右腕がとても重いです。左腕がとても重いです。

四回に分けて自分に言い聞かせても結構です。

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極楽庵 : GokuRakuAn

だるま資料館 : Daruma Museum, Japan

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3 comments:

Anonymous said...

I can't read your blog, here is a site that shows the steps in English:

http://www.gecuador.5gigs.com

. Gabi Greve said...

Thanks for your comment!.
This page was intended for my Japanese friends only.
I have been studying this at Heidelberg University many years ago with great sucess .
GABI

QUOTE from the page:

Autogenic Training has been developed by Dr. Schultz who published the first book on the subject in 1932. Dr. Schultz recognized that during hypnosis the subject experiences various feelings such as warmth and heaviness. He went on to teach practices to self induce these feelings and, consequently, hypnotic states.
From this self induction practice comes the name, Autogenic Training. Auto-genic means self created.

http://www.gecuador.5gigs.com

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Anonymous said...

http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_autogenic-training.htm

A Sample Session

Sit comfortably and gently roll your head in a half circle in front of you. Roll from side to side a few times then bring your head up to face forward. Take a deep breath in, drawing the air deep into your stomach. Slowly release the breath.

Concentrate on your breathing, which is smooth and rhythmic. Imagine that your breaths are like waves lapping at the shore. Keep this image in your mind as you repeat to yourself, "My breathing is rhythmic and smooth . . . my breathing is rhythmic and smooth."

With each breath, feel relaxation wash over you like the waves. The waves wash over your feet and legs, your stomach and chest. Feel them cover your arms, your neck, your head. Your arms and legs feet warm and heavy. Feel the waves of relaxation sweep over you. Feel your limbs growing heavier, warmer. Your breathing is calm, rhythmic, and smooth.

Now move your focus to your heart. Imagine the waves of relaxation washing over you, calming your breathing and your heart. Say to yourself, "My heart- beat is gentle and even . . . my heartbeat is gentle and even." "I feel quiet, calm, relaxed . . . my heart- beat is gentle and even."

Your body feels peaceful and tranquil, you are relaxed. Concentrate now on your right arm and hand. Say to yourself, "My right arm and hand feel warm and heavy . . . my right arm and hand feel warm and heavy." Imagine the sun shining on your arm and hand. Feel the warmth spread through your arm and hand as they grow heavier and heavier. Say to yourself, "My right arm and hand feel warm and heavy . . ."

Now focus on your left arm and hand. Say to yourself, "My left arm and hand feel warm and heavy . . . my left arm and hand feel warm and heavy." Again imagine the sun shining on your arm and hand, or that they are soaking in a hot tub. Feel the warmth spread through your arm and hand, and feel them grow heavier. Say to yourself, "My left arm and hand feel warm and heavy . . ."

Concentrate now on both of your arms and hands. They both feel warm and heavy. Say to yourself, "Both of my arms and hands are warm and heavy . . . my right arm and left arm are warm and heavy . . ." Feel the warmth flow through your arms and hands, down into your fingers to the tips. You feel relaxed all over as your arms and hands get warmer and heavier.
While your arms are warm and heavy, scan your body from head to toe to find any muscle tension in other parts of your body. Make sure your shoulders are dropped and relaxed, your jaw is not clenched, your legs are relaxed. You should feel relaxed all over, your mind free from thought.

Now turn your concentration to your legs. Feel the warmth and heaviness from your arms flow down into your legs. Say to yourself, "My legs and feet are warm and heavy . . . my legs and feet are warm and heavy." Imagine bathing in the sun and feel the warmth spread over your body, radiating through your arms and hands, down through your legs and feet. Say to yourself, "My feet and hands are warm and heavy . . . my arms and legs are warm and heavy." All of your limbs now feel warm and heavy. Your body is relaxed and calm, your breathing is deep and rhythmic, your heart is beating gently and evenly.

To complete the autogenic exercise, take a deep breath and exhale. Picture yourself now in the room where you began the session. You are calm and relaxed, and you will become more relaxed each time you do this exercise. Take a few more deep breaths, open your eyes, and you will feel relaxed yet alert and refreshed.

After The Session

If you are going to resume physical activity, you can follow your autogenic exercises with stretching to stimulate your muscles. If you find yourself yawning, don't assume that you are now tired. Take this as a sign that the exercise has worked-that you are relaxed and free from tension.

Contra-indications/Warnings

While autogenic training is effective in reducing stress, tension, and anxiety, it is not recommended for people with severe mental disorders. You should have a complete physical examination before beginning to practice autogenic training, and people with diabetes, hypoglycemia, heart conditions, and high or low blood pressure should practice only under the supervision of their physician. If you feel any adverse side effects, discontinue your practice and consult with an experienced autogenic training instructor.